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    水獭皮

      水獭皮毛皮松软,细柔,色泽美观,有深褐和褐色。同时也可以通过染色加工或漂色达到色彩丰富的效果。

    基本资料  【保护级别】:国家重点二级保护动物,世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)未列入。

      【濒危等级】:渐危,濒危动植物种国际贸易公约(CITES)附录Ⅰ。

      【致危因素】:环境污染,栖息地破坏,因为贸易被捕猎,作为医药成分被捕猎,过度捕猎。

      【保护措施】:限制捕猎

      【生态环境】:主要生活于河流和湖泊一带,尤其喜欢生活在两岸树木繁茂的溪河, 巢穴选在堤岸的岩缝中或树根下。

      【国内分布】:黑,吉, 辽,内蒙,宁, 陕,甘, 青,新, 豫,苏,浙,皖,鄂,湘,黔,川,滇南,藏,台,闽,粤,桂,琼。

      【国外分布】:欧洲,亚洲,非洲。

    编辑本段外形特征

      水獭流线型的身体,长约60~80厘米,体重可达5千克。头部宽而略扁,吻短,下颏中央有数根短而硬

    的须。眼略突出,耳短小而圆,鼻孔、耳道有防水灌入的瓣膜。尾细长,由基部至末端逐渐变细。四肢短,趾间具蹼。体毛较长而细密,呈棕黑色或咖啡色,具丝绢光泽;底绒丰厚柔软。体背灰褐,胸腹颜色灰褐,喉部、颈下灰白色,毛色还呈季节性变化,夏季稍带红棕色

    编辑本段分布范围

      欧洲、亚洲、美洲和非洲;黑龙江,吉林,辽宁, 内蒙古,宁夏,陕西,甘肃, 青海,新疆,

    河南,江苏, 浙江,安徽, 湖北,湖南, 贵州,四川, 云南(南部),西藏,台湾, 福建,广东, 广西,海南

    编辑本段生活环境

      它们傍水而居。常独居,不成群。多居自然洞穴,常爱住僻静堤岸有岩石隙缝、大树老根、蜿蜒曲折、

    通陆通水的洞窟。有时也栖息在竹林、草灌丛中,一般有一定的生活区域。往往在一个水系内从主流到支流,或从下游到上游巡回地觅食,亦能翻山越岭到另一条溪河,洪水淹洞或水中缺食时也常上陆觅食,滨海区的水獭尚有集群下海捕食的习惯。

    编辑本段生活习性

      昼伏夜出,以鱼类类、类、、水鸟等为主食。它们善于游泳和潜水,一次可在水下停留2分钟。

    捕起鱼来像猫捉老鼠一样快捷,捕食前常在水边的石块上伏视,一旦发现猎物,即迅速扑捕。水獭嗜好捕鱼,即使饱腹之后,它们还会无休无止地捕杀鱼类,因而对养鱼业危害极大。但聪明伶俐的水獭,经过半年训练,就可以成为一名为渔民效劳的捕鱼能手。被渔民亲切称为(鱼猫子).

      喜欢在通透性较好的水域追捕鱼群,也常候在岩边或水中露头的岩石上猎食,靠灵敏的视、听、嗅觉和矫健的泳术觅得食物。以鱼为主食,也捕食蟹、蛙、蛇、水禽以至各种小型动物

      河狸的主要食物是柳、桦、白杨、小叶杨等落叶树上较高较嫩的软枝内皮。它们不会爬树,而是用门牙把小树啃倒再吃。一对成年河狸可以在一刻钟内啃倒一棵直径10厘米粗

    的树。河狸后肢趾间有蹼,宽扁的尾巴则当舵,是游泳的好手。河狸是水陆两栖的动物。它们把食物贮于水中,在水陆之间筑堤堰截水成池,并打洞筑窝。它们的窝一头开口在河岸边,另一头开口在树林里,之间是宽敞的藏身处所。白天它们呆在窝里或岸边灌木丛中,夜里出来活动。(河狸跟水獭不是同一物种,河狸吃植物,会筑坝,而水獭肉食性动物不筑坝,此段没有删除是为了让大家知道两者的区别)

      水獭在深水抓到鱼并把它拖到浅水滩吃,它们也吃蟹。水獭遇到危险便潜入水中,靠身体内贮备的氧气可以在水下呆到5-15分钟。在潜入水中时,它们的耳、鼻都会封闭起来,眼睛则由一层透明的薄膜保护。水獭的身材为流线型,皮毛具有防水性。它们喜群居,或一雌一雄或一家老小住在一起。水獭1月交配,4、5月生产,一胎产3、4只幼水獭。小水獭至少要跟随父母两年。所有水獭都会齐心协力维护它们的堤堰和水道。

    编辑本段繁殖习性

      没有明显的繁殖季节,在夏季或秋季产仔全年均可繁殖。通常1胎2仔。妊娠期8周。哺乳期约为50天。性

    成熟年龄为2岁。

    编辑本段经济价值

      水獭是贵重的毛皮资源动物,皮毛不但外观美丽,而且特别厚,绒毛厚密而柔软,几乎不会被水浸湿,

    保温抗冻作用极好。獭肝、獭骨还具有药用价值。

    编辑本段种群现状

      数量不详。从历年收购皮张的情况来看,以华南、西南和东北区较多,50-60年代每年收购皮张量约1万

    张,至80年代初期收购量仅1000张左右,一定程度上反映了水獭资源陡降的趋势。

    编辑本段致危因素

      1.栖息地环境劣变。由于獭类生活环境污染、水质变劣,破坏了獭类栖息地和食物来源。污染严重的地

    方獭类会直接被毒死,在污染较低的地方,出现繁殖力低下,对疾病的抵抗力弱的恶果

      2.无度狩猎。獭皮价格昂贵,肝脏被认为是贵重的中药材,猎獭者穷追不舍,使水獭数量剧减。尤其是猎獭技术益精,运用“钩帘”法捕獭,大小水獭无一幸免,多数山溪江河已罕有獭迹。

    编辑本段现有保护措施

      列入国家重点保护野生动物名录 II 级。未经省级林业厅批准,不准捕猎,实际上控制力度非常有限。现有保护区中许多都应该能对水獭保护起一定的作用,如:黑龙江的七星砬子保护区和连三泡保护区;广西的青狮潭水源林保护区、布柳河水源林保护区、西大明山水源林保护区、滑水冲水源林保护区、穿洞河水源林保护区、三匹虎水源林保护区、古龙山水源林保护区、姑婆山水源林保护区、下雷水源林保护区、六万山水源林保护区、拉沟鸟类保护区等(李世裕,1993)。

    编辑本段保护措施建议

      1.有必要对水獭及其栖息地进行全面调查,对其现状、衰退的原因以及保护对策和行动计划认真研究和

    制定

      2.严格实行禁止捕獭,至少在10年,包括禁用钩帘捕獭。部分保护区应重点开展水獭保护项目,以利管护、恢复和发展水獭资源

      3.应采取积极行动,限制工业废水的排放,防止水源和湿地污染及有毒化学物质的毒害。

    编辑本段养殖

      水獭LutralutraLinnaeus

      食肉目Carnivora鼬科Mustelidae

      识别特点半水栖的哺乳动物。头部扁平宽阔,眼、耳均小,年鼻孔和耳内有小圆瓣,潜水时能关闭,防水侵入,鼻垫裸露部与皮毛交界处呈“W”形。四肢的爪长而较税利,趾间有蹼。体毛长,富有光泽,尾毛长密。

      水獭是人们久闻其名的水陆“两栖动物”,它的大小同哈巴狗差不多,故有水漪之称。水獭的身体细长,超过半米,很像一只圆筒,头部短宽而前端略为平扁,四肢粗壮,但又显得十分短小,脚趾之间张有皮蹼,是适于划水的特备装置,肌肉强大有力的尾巴犹如一枝能校正航向的舵梢,可以起到控制游泳方向的作用。背面棕黑色或栗褐色,光泽耀眼,鲜艳华丽。

    水獭行踪诡秘,喜欢栖居在陡峭的岸边、河岸浅滩,以及水草少和附近林木繁茂的河湖溪沼之中,过着隐蔽的穴居生活。人们常用“狡兔三窟”来形容兔子具有很高的防敌警惕性,然而,无独有偶的是水獭也有好几处住所,经常迁居,所以要想掏巢捕獭是极不容易的。水獭的水性娴熟,不但能快速灵活地游泳,还能通过小圆瓣把鼻孔和耳朵紧闭起来,不动声色地贴身水面之下,作长距离潜泳,据说可以一口气潜游6~8分钟,然后将鼻孔伸出水面换气。它是水中的矫健猎手,凡被水獭一眼瞅见的鱼、蛙、虾都难以逃脱厄运,最终必定丧生獭口。水獭的一生几乎都是在水里捕食和生活的,只有当它饿得发慌时才会离水到岸边去觅食老鼠和小鸟,甚至冒险潜入村舍去偷吃小鸡雏鸭。水獭在陆上行走时,肚皮紧贴地面,因肢体短小而爬动艰难,显得非常吃力,易被敌害追上。它的感觉非常敏锐,记忆力也挺强,从哪里下水就准确无误地由原地登陆上岸,循着爪痕足迹返回巢穴。

      水獭每年繁殖两次。此獭怀孕期五十多天,一次产仔獭1~3只。仔獭的生长发育特别慢,通常要在出生后一个多月才睁开眼睛。母獭在哺乳期内,对孩子关怀备至,除了外出捕食外,几乎整天陪伴着子女。出生两个月后,幼獭开始练习游泳,初下水的小水獭显得极兴奋和激动,但又感到十分惊恐,生怕沉下水下,紧紧抓住双亲的尾巴,还顽皮地不断翻滚着。

      水獭的毛皮珍贵美观,质轻而韧,底绒丰厚,保暖性强,由此制成的奢华皮帽、皮领、皮袖等,都是国际市场的畅销货。水獭肝入药,有补肝和止咳功能,主治虚劳、盗汗、咳嗽、夜盲等症,有一定疗效。由于过量铺猎,水獭已成罕见珍兽,现已列为国家Ⅱ级重点保护动物。

      1.养殖场建造养殖场由运动场、水池、饲养室和窝箱组成。运动场露天,铺水泥地面,面积10~50平方米,高2~3米,四周和顶用铁丝网封闭。运动场内设2~10平方米水池,池水深0.4~0.7米。池内设一些假山、树墩和洞穴供水獭隐蔽和栖身。运动场和饲养室相连。室面积为4~8平方米,设有木制窝(产)箱(1米×0.6米×0.8米),靠近运动场的一面留有自由出入孔,箱顶留一观察孔,箱内垫上干草。

      2.饲料准备以新鲜的淡水杂鱼为主,如鲫鱼、鲤鱼、鲢鱼、鲶鱼等。亦可喂少量的肉、动物内脏、谷物、蔬菜等,或以米饭、碎肉、鱼粉等代替鲜鱼。

      3.引种一般从其他养殖场引进种獭。因为水獭性情凶猛,操作时必须戴上手套,以防伤人。刚引入的水獭,开始l~2天往往不吃食,要减少惊扰,使其安静休息2~3天,逐步适应新环境后再喂一些新鲜的活淡水鱼,待其完全适应后再按常规饲养。

      4.饲养管理

      (1)幼獭 水獭出生后主要由母獭哺乳饲喂,偶尔需人工哺乳。可将仔獭抱在身上用手轻轻按压嘴角,使其嘴张开,另一只手将奶瓶奶头塞入嘴里,挤出少量奶汁让其舔食。这样经过2~3天,水獭就能慢慢适应。奶汁的浓度开始以1:1稀释,10天后可逐渐改喂原汁牛奶,奶温保持37摄氏度左右,每天喂6次,1个月后减少到每日2次,逐渐喂鱼。在喂养过程中,用具每天消毒,水獭吃奶时流在身上的奶液要及时擦干净。

      断乳后的幼獭应捉到另一池塘里喂养,每池可养8~9只。饲料内鱼类占80%,配以新鲜猪肉和动物内脏、谷物和蔬菜等。日喂量按每只水獭0.8~1.2千克计算,分4次投喂。

      (2)成獭日喂量按每只水獭1.0~1.3千克计算,分上、下午2次投喂。严冬季节饲喂量可增加到最高限量,分3次喂。饲料尽可能做到多样化,也可养蛙、泥鳅等饲喂。饲料中需常补充维生素,尤其维生素B1和维生素A,因为淡水鱼含有硫胺素酶,能破坏饲料中维生素B1,许多鱼和红色肌肉缺乏维生素A。要供给充足清洁的池水。

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