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  • 設為首頁| 收藏本站   打造最權威的吉林省企業信息平臺
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    關東煙

      關東煙聞名全國,煙葉大,質地厚,色澤好,是吸煙的癮君子們垂涎三尺的上品煙。辨別關東煙的訣竅:一是看,看煙葉的厚薄,有無斑痕;二是嗅,把煙葉放到鼻前聞,醇厚纏綿的芳香味兒,它煙所不及;三是品,捏下一把煙末兒,或擰煙卷兒,或裝煙鍋兒,輕輕地吸一口,讓煙香在腔里悶一個時辰,再緩緩地從鼻子里返出來。雖然煙已噴出,但煙香卻久久地在口腔里徘徊 ,無有怪異味兒,曰:“地地道道的關東煙!”
      關東煙之所以是上品與地理位置、土質優劣有關。關東是我國北方的高寒地帶,上煙季節秋高氣爽,日照充足,煙來得快,露灑得勻,味兒顯得特別香醇。
      煙分兩類,最早最普通的就是黃煙,也叫曬煙,就是煙成熟后,用繩串起來,掛在架上曬,所以農諺二十四節就說“白露煙上架”,就是說二十四節的白露節氣一過,煙就成熟了,可以割下來上架子。
      另一類就是目前大面積種植的烤煙,雖然與旱煙同屬一科,種植方法基本相同,但在即將成熟時,需要進烤房烘烤,煙的味道清淡,在上個世紀的寧安就有人種植,產下煙后運到哈爾濱俄國人開的老巴奪卷煙廠收購。旱煙淡出市場,再加之吸煙有害的觀點被更多的人接受,種曬煙、吸曬煙的人越來越少,因此煙袋、煙荷包等煙具和“十七八的姑娘叼煙袋”的習俗都成為遠去的歷史。
      關東煙為產于滿洲的煙葉。吉林蛟河漂河鎮是“正宗關東煙”的產地,距今已有340多年的種植歷史。據《吉林外記》記載:蛟河曬紅煙亦稱“南山煙”,也叫“關東煙”。“煙,東北三省俱產,惟吉林產者極佳。名色不一……獨湯頭溝有四五坰,所生煙葉只有一掌,與別處所產不同,味濃而厚,清香入鼻,人多爭買。”史書中所指的“湯頭溝”,即今日的蛟河市漂河鎮的塔頭溝屯。所述“煙葉只有一掌”,指的是蛟河曬煙傳統種植品種紅花鐵銼子、白花鐵銼子。

    產地介紹

      從吉林市豐滿五虎島沿湖上行,至松花湖東岸的蛟河市漂河鎮境內,有個叫“喇叭口”的地方,矗立著一座高3.06米、寬0.8米的花崗巖石碑,石碑上刻著蒼勁的楷書——正宗關東煙。這是清皇室后裔愛新覺羅·溥佐先生于1992年題寫的。
      蛟河市地處吉林省東部,松花湖東岸,屬丘陵半山區。土壤類型有灰棕壤、白漿土、沖積土等,氣候溫和,雨量充沛,特別是在松花湖沿岸的小氣候區,種植曬煙的自然條件十分優越。
      蛟河是吉林省曬煙的主要產區。據考證,自清朝順治年間起,這里的農民就開始種植曬煙,距今已有340多年的歷史。蛟河曬煙因其質量好、種植歷史長,至清朝咸豐年間,已聞名遐邇,并初具生產規模。當時主要銷往東北、華北、東南沿海,被喜食者譽為“關東煙”。蛟河市漂河鎮是關東煙的主要產區。很多人又把享譽大江南北的關東煙稱做“漂河煙”、“蛟河煙”。據成書于182 7年(清道光七年)的《吉林外記》載:煙,東北三省俱產,惟吉林產者極佳。名色不一……獨湯頭溝有四五坰,所生煙葉只有一掌,與別處所產不同,味濃而厚,清香入鼻,人多爭買。史書中所說的“湯頭溝”,是指蛟河市漂河鎮寒蔥溝村,現名為塔頭溝屯。所述“煙葉只有一掌”,就指的是蛟河曬煙傳統種植品種紅花鐵銼子、白花鐵銼子。

    編輯本段歷史記載

      據史書《吉林土特產》記載,清順治年間(1653年)朝廷頒布遼東召墾令,當時山東、直隸(河北)、遼寧等地不少農民遷移來到吉林蛟河,他們扶老攜幼,背井離鄉,舉家“闖關東”,并攜帶煙籽,在松花湖上游及各支流,即漂河、拉法河、雙岔河等流域進行種植。這就是煙草傳入蛟河的最早渠道和年代。到20世紀初,塔頭溝一帶已有農戶500多,是歷史上最繁華的時期。當地農民除種糧食外,家家戶戶都種煙,這是當時惟一能夠換錢及購買油、鹽、布的經濟品種。由于當時交通不便,銷售成了一大難題。待到黃煙捆把后,用高粱秸、葵花秸等編制成包裝簾子,將煙葉分類捆成200~300多斤重的大煙包。冬天到了,結凍封河,漂河兩岸的煙農們,把大煙包裝上雪爬犁,成群結伙運往吉林市,賣給關里來的黃煙老客或市內各煙麻店。
      煙農們頭戴狗皮帽子,腳穿牛皮兀拉,沿著喇叭口——額赫島——海浪——豐滿,進入吉林市。當時有段廣泛流傳的順口溜,道出了煙農的艱辛:
      喇叭口的爬犁悠悠蕩蕩,
      一人趕著二三張,
      進店掏出蕎麥餅,
      三個人只要一碗湯。
      住店不租被和褥,
      光炕睡到大天亮,
      窮人不吃苦中苦,
      怎得甜來日月長……
      當時吉林市又叫“船廠”,市內經營煙麻品的商號有六七家,其中最有名氣的當屬號稱北方四大巨富之一的“船廠牛家”。牛家經營煙麻的店鋪叫“恒升慶”,地址在北大街路東,是當時吉林最大的煙麻客棧。在收煙季節,各地喜歡蛟河煙的客商,很早就來到恒升慶客棧等候。待蛟河農民送煙的爬犁或大車一到,便紛紛定購、囤積,源源不斷運往關內。當時紅極一時的蛟河煙,經由吉林市運往沈陽、唐山、天津、北京、張家口等地。清末民初時,蛟河每年銷往關內的煙葉仍在1000噸左右。

    文化習俗

    漂河煙的禮儀文化

      1、漂河煙成為皇室貢品后,價值猛增成為民間饋贈的厚重禮品,到了南方,更是愛不釋手的珍品,外來人員,無論本人是否吸食,均買上兩捆帶回送給至親好友。
      2、煙口袋、煙荷包成為愛情信物。青年女子把煙荷包做成圓的、長方的、雞心型的,花籃式的,寶葫蘆式的等等,再在荷包面上刺繡成花鳥、吉利字、詞和美麗的圖案。送給情人系于腰間。女子得到男友送來的如意煙口袋或煙荷包則掛在旗袍襟間第二個紐袢上。
      3、關東人家中取進新媳婦后,由婆婆領著兒媳去認親,新媳婦給長輩敬煙。此時,長輩就要毫不悋色的賞“裝煙錢”。
      4、裝煙在當地成為一種孝順。無論誰家的兒媳,早上醒來第一件事情就是為會吸食煙的公婆裝煙袋并點煙,以示孝順。
      5、家里來了客人或親朋,首先給他們裝上一袋煙,就是禮節,又是熱情。

    漂河煙形成的習俗

      1、用煙袋吸食漂河煙的習俗
      用煙袋吸食,是因當時關東人很少能接觸筆墨紙張,大多數與讀書無緣,既便有了紙張,也不能用來卷煙,且男性用短桿煙袋攜帶方便易于外出勞作,婦女在家則多用長桿煙袋,做長輩的婦女使用的煙袋嘴常常很講究,大凡是玉石制成,上世紀五十年代前后,由歐州引進一種更短的煙袋,稱“木頭克”完全是用硬木旋制。延用煙袋的習俗在關東人這里長達三百余年。
      2、用紙卷煙吸食習俗
      用紙卷煙吸食,是在新中國成立后,關東人歡欣鼓舞,適齡兒童紛紛上學讀書,書本到了普通人家,人們開始用紙卷吸食。后來,關東人可以用造紙廠特制的特白純木漿大羅紋卷煙紙,大大提高了漂河煙的吸食質量,并延續至今。
      3、品煙的習俗
      煙民們在茶余飯后,喜歡串門子,大多集中在有威望,人緣好,又好客的人家,嘮著家常,農事、煙的產量、質量、能賣多少錢等。閑聊間,每人掏出自己的煙口袋,你裝一袋,我卷一顆,相互敬著,品著聊著,通過這樣的品煙、評煙、交流著漂河煙的種植,晾曬等侍弄漂河煙技術。傳承著古老的農村文化。 作用功效  漂河煙的生產歷史悠久,在清咸豐年間被冊封為朝貢佳品,譽為“正宗關東煙”,現已注冊“漂河皇封煙”商標。人們所說的關東煙,其實是東北三省種植煙草的統稱,純正的關東煙,則屬吉林旱煙,而品質優良、正宗香醇的關東煙則是漂河曬煙。可謂 “關東煙甲天下,漂河煙草甲關東”。漂河煙的作用

    漂河煙有消愁、解悶、提神、解乏的作用

      漂河流傳著這樣的民謠:“飯后一袋煙,賽過活神仙。輕輕抽一口,全身都舒坦。寫文章抽支煙保證思路寬。勞作間抽支煙,既可提神又解讒。”冬季農閑時節,他們則常聚在一起刁著長煙袋,守著火盆,端著煙笸籮,嘮家常,破悶子,講瞎話,滿屋繚繞漂河煙霧,歡聲笑語,其樂融融,成為當地的一種文化風景。

    漂河煙有藥用作用

      人們肚子疼時,摳點煙袋油子抹到肚臍上可以起到止痛作用,漂河煙的煙拐子,煙梗熬水,可治愈皮癬和腳氣病。小的外傷流血,捏一點煙末兒按到傷口上,可消炎、止痛、止血等。

    漂河煙有護身作用

      舊時的關東山區,特別是東部山區,山高林密,草木叢叢,蚊蟲肆虐,野獸成群。當時人們(特別是滿族)主要以農耕、采山、狩獵為業,大部分時間奔波于崇山峻嶺,常遭野獸威脅,蚊蟲叮咬,毒蛇襲咬。而漂河旱煙的煙氣能驅趕蚊蟲、蠅虻叮咬。漂河煙的煙味,尤其是煙袋中的煙油味道濃烈毒蛇聞到即刻轉向而逃。野獸沒有不怕煙火的,晚上,看到燃著的旱煙光亮必逃。
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